Crude oil is formed naturally and contains untreated hydrocarbon components. Crude oil can be refined in order to obtain gasoline, diesel and various petrochemical products.
Crude oil may be referred as “black gold” and its color may vary between different shades of yellow and black based on its hydrocarbon content and viscosity. Heated distillation separation is the first step of purification.
CRUDE OIL VARIETIES:
1-LIGHT CRUDE OIL: Light crude oil has low density and it is a liquid component that can freely flow under room conditions. It generally contains low amount of wax. It has low viscosity and high specific API gravity as a result of high hydrocarbon fractions in it. Light crude oil is more expensive in capital markets because more gasoline and diesel fuel can be obtained when light crude oil is treated for separation.
2 HEAVY CRUDE OIL: As this product’s density is heavier with respect to light crude oil, it is named as heavy crude oil. Heavy crude oil or extra heavy crude oil is extremely viscous and under normal storage conditions, its flow is difficult. All types of liquid petroleum products that have API gravity less than 20° are called as heavy crude oil. Physical characteristic differences between heavy and light crude oil types are: Heavy crude oil has higher viscosity and higher molecular weight as well. In 2010, World Energy Council defined compounds found in reservoirsand with additional viscosity value of 10000 cP and additional API gravity value of 10° as extra heavy crude oil. In case reservoir viscosity measurement techniques are not applicable, extra heavy oil DEK 4° is accepted as reference.
CRUDE OIL PACKING TYPES:
Put on the market in metal packing material called as barrel. It is the best, fastest and most efficient option for high volume purchases. Some countries recycle these barrels after using them and obtain further income.
Transportation is done with tanker trucks and special tanker ships.
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